In the age of information overload,
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# Topological frequency conversion in Weyl semimetals

By: Frederik Nathan, Ivar Martin, Gil Refael

We theoretically predict a new working principle for optical amplification, based on Weyl semimetals: when a Weyl semimetal is suitably irradiated at two frequencies, electrons close to the Weyl points convert energy between the frequencies through the mechanism of topological frequency conversion from [Martin et al, PRX 7 041008 (2017)]. Each electron converts energy at a quantized rate given by an integer multiple of Planck's constant mul... more

# On the Nature and Types of Anomalies: A Review of Deviations in Data

By: Ralph Foorthuis

Anomalies are occurrences in a dataset that are in some way unusual and do not fit the general patterns. The concept of the anomaly is typically ill-defined and perceived as vague and domain-dependent. Moreover, despite some 250 years of publications on the topic, no comprehensive and concrete overviews of the different types of anomalies have hitherto been published. By means of an extensive literature review this study therefore offers the ... more

# Quantum simulation costs for Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of quantum many-body lattice models

By: Nathan M. Myers, Ryan Scott, Kwon Park, Vito W. Scarola

Quantum computers offer the potential to efficiently simulate the dynamics of quantum systems, a task whose difficulty scales exponentially with system size on classical devices. To assess the potential for near-term quantum computers to simulate many-body systems we develop a model-independent formalism to straightforwardly compute bounds on the number of Trotter steps needed to accurately simulate the system's time evolution based on the fi... more

# The ANITA Anomalous Events as Signatures of a Beyond Standard Model Particle, and Supporting Observations from IceCube

By: Derek B. Fox, Steinn Sigurdsson, Sarah Shandera, Peter Mészáros, Kohta Murase, Miguel Mostafá, Stephane Coutu (Penn State University)

The ANITA collaboration have reported observation of two anomalous events that appear to be $\varepsilon_{\rm cr} \approx 0.6$ EeV cosmic ray showers emerging from the Earth with exit angles of $27^\circ$ and $35^\circ$, respectively. While EeV-scale upgoing showers have been anticipated as a result of astrophysical tau neutrinos converting to tau leptons during Earth passage, the observed exit angles are much steeper than expected in Stand... more

# Evidence of near-ambient superconductivity in a N-doped lutetium hydride

By: Nathan Dasenbrock-Gammon, Elliot Snider, Raymond McBride, Hiranya Pasan, Dylan Durkee, Nugzari Khalvashi-Sutter, Sasanka Munasinghe, Sachith E. Dissanayake, Keith V. Lawler, Ashkan Salamat & Ranga P. Dias

The absence of electrical resistance exhibited by superconducting materials would have enormous potential for applications if it existed at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Despite decades of intense research efforts, such a state has yet to be realized. At ambient pressures, cuprates are the material class exhibiting superconductivity to the highest critical superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), up to about 133 K. Over th... more

# Motorized actuation system to perform droplet operations on printed plastic sheets

By: Taejoon Kong, Santosh Pandey

We developed an open microfluidic system to dispense and manipulate discrete droplets on planar plastic sheets. Here, a superhydrophobic material is spray-coated on commercially-available plastic sheets followed by the printing of hydrophilic symbols using an inkjet printer. The patterned plastic sheets are taped to a two-axis tilting platform, powered by stepper motors, that provides mechanical agitation for droplet transport. We demonstrat... more
5 SciCasts by Santosh Pandey.

# Effect of magnetic field on the fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

By: Santosh Pandey

Published literature has shown conflicting results regarding the effects of magnetic fields on the fermentation kinetics or cellular growth of various Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Here, two sets of experiments were conducted to characterize the role of magnetic fields on cell growth and ethanol production during fermentation. The first experiment was completed for 25 h at a 2% dextrose loading rate under influence of homogeneous and non-... more
10 SciCasts by Santosh Pandey.

# Unidirectional, electrotactic-response valve for Caenorhabditis elegans in microfluidic devices

By: Santosh Pandey

We report a nematode electrotactic-response valve (NERV) to control the locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in microfluidic devices. This nonmechanical, unidirectional valve is based on creating a confined region of lateral electric field that is switchable and reversible. We observed that C. elegans do not prefer to pass through this region if the field lines are incident to its forward movement. Upon reaching the boundary of t... more
10 SciCasts by Santosh Pandey.

# COVID-19 Testing and Diagnostics: A Review of Commercialized Technologies for Cost, Convenience and Quality of Tests

By: Ashler Benda, Lukas Zerajic, Ankita Ankita, Erin Cleary, Yunsoo Park, Santosh Pandey

Population-scale and rapid testing for SARS-CoV-2 continues to be a priority for several parts of the world. We revisit the in vitro technology platforms for COVID-19 testing and diagnostics—molecular tests and rapid antigen tests, serology or antibody tests, and tests for the management of COVID-19 patients. Within each category of tests, we review the commercialized testing platforms, their analyzing systems, specimen collection protocols, ... more

# Robotic agricultural instrument for automated extraction of nematode cysts and eggs from soil to improve integrated pest management

By: Christopher M. Legner, Gregory L Tylka, Santosh Pandey

Soybeans are an important crop for global food security. Every year, soybean yields are reduced by numerous soybean diseases, particularly the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). It is difficult to visually identify the presence of SCN in the field, let alone its population densities or numbers, as there are no obvious aboveground disease symptoms. The only definitive way to assess SCN population densities is to directly extract the SCN cysts from s... more

# Video Capsule Endoscopy and Ingestible Electronics: Emerging Trends in Sensors, Circuits, Materials, Telemetry, Optics, and Rapid Reading Software

By: Dylan Miley, Leonardo Bertoncello Machado, Calvin Condo, Albert E. Jergens, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Santosh Pandey

Real-time monitoring of the gastrointestinal tract in a safe and comfortable manner is valuable for the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. Within this realm, our review captures the trends in ingestible capsule systems with a focus on hardware and software technologies used for capsule endoscopy and remote patient monitoring. We introduce the structure and functions of the gastrointestinal tract, and the FDA guidelines for ingestible wir... more

# A Runtime Environment for Contract Automata

By: Davide Basile, Maurice H. ter Beek

Contract automata have been introduced for specifying applications through behavioural contracts and for synthesising their orchestrations as finite state automata. This paper addresses the realisation of applications from contract automata specifications. We present {\tt CARE}, a new runtime environment to coordinate services implementing contracts that guarantees the adherence of the implementation to its contract. We discuss how {\tt... more

# Evidence for suppression of growth of structure

By: Nhat-Minh Nguyen, Dragan Huterer, Yuewei Wen

We present evidence for a suppressed growth rate of large-scale structure during the dark-energy dominated era. Modeling the growth rate of perturbations with the growth index'' γ, we find that current cosmological data strongly prefer a higher growth index than the value γ=0.55 predicted by general relativity in a flat ΛCDM cosmology. Both the cosmic microwave background data from Planck and the large-scale structure data from weak lensing... more

# DeepCPG Policies for Robot Locomotion

By: Aditya M Deshpande, Eric Hurd, Ali A. Minai, Manish Kumar

Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) form the neural basis of the observed rhythmic behaviors for locomotion in legged animals. The CPG dynamics organized into networks allow the emergence of complex locomotor behaviors. In this work, we take this inspiration for developing walking behaviors in multi-legged robots. We present novel DeepCPG policies that embed CPGs as a layer in a larger neural network and facilitate end-to-end learning of locomo... more

# A primer on twistronics: A massless Dirac fermion's journey to moiré patterns and flat bands in twisted bilayer graphene

By: Deepanshu Aggarwal, Rohit Narula, Sankalpa Ghosh

The recent discovery of superconductivity in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene has sparked a renewed interest in the strongly-correlated physics of sp2 carbons, in stark contrast to preliminary investigations which were dominated by the one-body physics of the massless Dirac fermions. We thus provide a self-contained, theoretical perspective of the journey of graphene from its single-particle physics-dominated regime to the strongly-correl... more

# TAU: A Framework for Video-Based Traffic Analytics Leveraging Artificial Intelligence and Unmanned Aerial Systems

Smart traffic engineering and intelligent transportation services are in increasing demand from governmental authorities to optimize traffic performance and thus reduce energy costs, increase the drivers’ safety and comfort, ensure traffic laws enforcement, and detect traffic violations. In this paper, we address this challenge, and we leverage the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to develop an AI-integr... more

# Statistical strong lensing. I. Constraints on the inner structure of galaxies from samples of a thousand lenses

By: Alessandro Sonnenfeld

Context. The number of known strong gravitational lenses is expected to grow substantially in the next few years. The combination of large samples of lenses has the potential to provide strong constraints on the inner structure of galaxies. Aims: We investigate the extent to which we can calibrate stellar mass measurements and constrain the average dark matter density profile of galaxies by combining strong lensing data from thousands of lens... more

# Statistical strong lensing. II. Cosmology and galaxy structure with time-delay lenses

By: Alessandro Sonnenfeld

Context. Time-delay lensing is a powerful tool for measuring the Hubble constant H0. However, in order to obtain an accurate estimate of H0 from a sample of time-delay lenses, very good knowledge of the mass structure of the lens galaxies is needed. Strong lensing data on their own are not sufficient to break the degeneracy between H0 and the lens model parameters on a single object basis. Aims: The goal of this study is to determine whether ... more